Hydrogenation of nitrile


The catalysts commonly used in industry are Ni and Co, because when they are used to catalyze hydrogenonitrile, primary amines are mainly generated, Rh is generated more secondary amines, and Pt and Pd are mainly produced tertiary amines, and it is almost recognized in the literature that nitrile hydrogenation catalysts are skeleton Co. Under the dioxane solvent, a primary amine with a near-theoretical value can be obtained with almost no side reactions. When reacting Ni, if NH3 is not added, some secondary amines are still produced. However, Ni is far cheaper than Co, so most industries use skeleton N and other appropriate ingredients to replace Co. Hydrogenation of aliphatic hydrocarbonitrile or aromatic hydrocarbonitrile compounds can be applied by higher fatty acid derivatives. Ru has a strong adsorption bond, and its properties are similar to Co, such as used as a catalyst for nitrile hydrogenation, and a high yield of primary amines should also be obtained. Although this data is rare, it is known that similar reactions to hydrogenation below do hydrogenate N-bonds into high-yield primary amines.

 

 

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Reni nickel catalyst science knowledge(1)

Physical and chemical properties: Reni nickel catalyst before activation is silver-gray amorphous powder (nickel-aluminum alloy powder), with a moderate degree of flammability, partial activation in the presence of water and the production of hydrogen easy agglomeration, long-term exposure to air is easy to weather. Nickel-aluminum alloy powder is activated into gray-black particles, accompanied by active hydrogen, extremely unstable, oxidative combustion in the air, must be immersed in water or ethanol for preservation. It was first used by American engineer Murray Rainey as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils. The preparation process is to treat nickel-aluminum alloy with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution, in this process, most of the aluminum will react with sodium hydroxide and dissolve, leaving a lot of micropores of different sizes. In this way, the surface of Raininickel is a fine gray powder, but from a microscopic point of view, each tiny particle in the powder is a three-dimensional porous structure, this porous structure greatly increases its surface area, and the large surface area brings high catalytic activity, which makes Raininickel widely used as a heterogeneous catalyst in organic synthesis and industrial hydrogenation reactions. Since "Rainey" is a registered trademark of Grace Chemicals, strictly speaking, only products manufactured by the company's Davidson Chemical Division can be called "Lanny Nickel". The term "metal backbone catalyst" or "sponge-metal catalyst" is used to refer to catalysts with a microporous structure and physical and chemical properties similar to Raney nickel.